Acne on a womans face

SKIN DISEASE -CAUSES/SYMPTOM/ PREVENTION/TREATMENT

skin disease types

1.Acne

skin disease

Acne, the foremost common disease of the skin within the U.S., is a supply of hysteria for each teenager. Plus, the incidence of skin problems is growing in adults, too.

Symptoms:

skin problem signs and symptoms vary reckoning on the severity of your condition:
Whiteheads (closed blocked pores)
-Blackheads (open blocked pores)
-Small red, tender bumps (papules)
Pimples (pustules), that area unit papules with pus at their tips
-large, solid, painful lumps at a lower place the surface of the skin (nodules)

Causes:

skin problem happens once the pores of your skin become blocked with oil, dead skin, or bacterium. Each pore of your skin is that the gap to a cyst. The follicle is formed of a hair and a fatty (oil) secreted.
The exocrine gland releases secretion (oil), that travels up the hair, out of the pore, and onto your skin. The secretion keeps your skin greased and soft.
One or additional issues during the lubrication method will cause skin problems. It will occur when too much oil is made by your follicles dead skin cells accumulate in your pores bacteria build up in your pores These issues contribute to the event of pimples. A hickey seems once bacterium grows during a clogged pore and therefore the oil is unable to flee.

Treatment:

how to cure acne?

The treatment plan your doctor recommends depends on your age, the kind and severity of your skin problem, and what you’re willing to conceive tooas an exampleyou will wash and apply medications to the affected skin doubly every day for many weeks. typically topical medications and medicines {you take|you’re taking|you area unit taking} orally (oral medication) are employed in combination. Pregnant girls won’t be ready to use oral prescription medications for skin problems.

Talk along with your doctor concerning the risks and edges of medicines and alternative treatments you’re considering.

Topical medications
The most common topical prescription medications for skin problem area unit as follows:

Retinoids and retinoid-like drugs:-

These return as creams, gels, and lotions. Retinoid medication area unit derived from A and embrace tretinoin (Avita, Retin-A, others), adapalene (Differin) and tazarotene (Tazorac, Avage). you apply this medication within the evening, starting with 3 times every week, then daily as your skin becomes accustomed to it. It works by preventing the plugging of the hair follicles.

Dapsone:-

bactericide (Aczone) five p.c gel doubly daily is recommended for inflammatory skin problemsparticularly in adult females with skin problemsaspect effects embrace redness and condition.
Evidence isn’t robust in support of mistreatment Zn, sulfur, nicotinamide, resorcinol, sulfonamide metal or Al chloride in topical treatments for skin problems.

Antibiotics:-

These work by killing excess skin bacterium and reducing redness. For the primary few months of treatment, you will use each a retinoid associate degreed an antibiotic, with the antibiotic applied within the morning and therefore the retinoid within the evening. The antibiotics area unit typically combined with a bleaching agent to cut back the chance of developing antibiotic resistance. Examples embrace clindamycin with a bleaching agent (Benzaclin, Duac, Acanya) and Pediamycin with a bleaching agent (Benzamycin). Topical antibiotics alone are not counseled.

Salicylic acid and azelaic acid:-

Azelaic acid could be a present acid found in whole-grain cereals and animal merchandiseit’s bactericide properties. Twenty p.c azelaic acid cream looks to be as effective as several standard skin problem treatments once used doubly every day for a minimum of four weeks. It’s even more practical once employed in combination with Pediamycin. Prescription azelaic acid (Azelex, Finacea) is associate degree choice throughout the physiological condition and whereas breastfeeding. aspect effects embrace skin discoloration and minor skin irritation. Salicylic acid might facilitate stop blocked hair follicles and is out there as each wash-off and leave-on merchandise. Studies showing its effectiveness in area unit restricted.

Oral medications

Antibiotics. For moderate to severe skin problemsyou will like oral antibiotics to cut back bacteria and fight inflammation. typically the primary alternative for treating skin problems is bactericide — like tetracycline or Vibramycin — or a macrolide. Oral antibiotics ought to be used for the shortest time doable to forestall antibiotic resistance. Oral antibiotics area unit best used with topical retinoids and bleaching agents. Studies have found that mistreatment topical bleaching agent at the side of oral antibiotics might scale back the danger of developing antibiotic resistance.

Antibiotics might cause aspect effects, like associate degree dyspepsia and symptom. This medication additionally increases your skin’s sun sensitivity.

Combined oral contraceptives. Four combined oral contraceptives area units approved by the federal agency for skin problem medical care in girls WHO additionally want to use them for contraceptive methodsthey’re merchandise that mix steroid and steroid hormone (Ortho Tri-Cyclen, Yaz, others). you will not see the good thing about this treatment for a couple of months, therefore mistreatment alternative skin problem medications with it the primary few weeks might facilitate.

The most common aspect effects of those medication area unit weight gain, breast tenderness, and nausea. a significant potential complication could be a slightly enlarged risk of blood clots.

Anti-androgen agents

The drug corticosteroid (Aldactone) is also thought-about women} and adolescent girls if oral antibiotics are not serving to. It works by interference with the result of steroid hormones on the fatty glands. doable aspect effects embrace breast tenderness and painful periods. Isotretinoin. Isotretinoin (Amnesteem, Claravis, Sotret) could be a powerful drug for folks whose severe skin problem does not reply to alternative treatments.

Oral isotretinoin is incredibly effective. however, as a result of its potential aspect effects, doctors ought to closely monitor anyone they treat with this drug. Potential aspect effects embrace inflammatory bowel diseaseassociate degree enlarged risk of depression and suicide, and severe birth defects. In fact, isotretinoin carries such serious risk of aspect effects that each one folk receiving isotretinoin should participate during a Food and Drug Administration-approved risk management program.

Therapies:-

These therapies are also steered in choose cases, either alone or together with medications.

Lasers and photodynamic medical carea spread of light-based therapies is tried with some success. however, any study is required to see the perfect methodologysource of illumination and dose.

Steroid injection:-
Nodular and cystic lesions are often treated by injecting a steroid drug directly into them. This medical aid has resulted in fast improvement and shriveled pain. aspect effects might embrace cutting within the treated space.

Treating children:

inflammatory disease medication has concerned folks twelve years elderly or older. more and more, younger youngsters are becoming inflammatory diseases in addition. In one study of 365 women ages nine to tenseventy-eight % of them had inflammatory disease lesions. If your kid has the inflammatory diseasethink about consulting a pediatric medical specialistraise regarding medication to avoid in youngstersapplicable doses, drug interactions, aspect effects, and the way treatment might have an effect on a child’s growth and development.

2 Shingles(Herpes zoster):-

Shingle is a virulent disease of rash or blisters on the skin. it’s caused by the varicella-zoster virus – a constant virus that causes poxonce you have got the pox, the virus stays in your body. it should not cause issues for several years. however as you become older, the virus might appear as shingles.

SYMPTOMS:

Early signs of shingles embrace burning or shooting pain and tingling or itchit’s typically on one aspect of the body or face. the pain are often delicate to severe.

one to fourteen days later, you’ll get a rash. It consists of blisters that typically scab over in seven to ten days. The rash is sometimes one stripe around either the left or the proper aspect of the body. In alternative cases, the rash happens on one aspect of the face. In rare cases (usually among folks with weakened immune systems), the rash could also be additional widespread and appearance just like a pox rash.

Some folks can also produce other symptoms:

Fever
Headache
Chills
Upset abdomen

CAUSES:-

A virus causes shingles. It’s a constant virus that causes pox.

In fact, to urge shingles, you want to have the pox virus within your body. anyone United Nations agency has had pox has this virus. once you live through pox, the virus moves to nerves within your body, wherever it goes to sleep. you’ll forever have the virus within your body. If the virus wakes up, you get shingles.

Many people erroneously believe that they can not get shingles as a result of they don’t keep in mind having pox. If you were born within us before 1980, you seemingly had the pox.

More than ninety-nine of individuals born within the North American country before 1980 have had it, percenters for Disease management and hindrance (CDC).3 many folks merely don’t keep in mind having poxthey will are too young to recollect or had an awfully delicate case.

TREATMENT:-

several antiviral medicines—acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir—are offered to treat shingles and shorten the length and severity of the ill-health. These medicines area unit best if you begin taking them as shortly as doable once the rash seems. If you’re thinking that you have got shingles, contact your tending supplier as shortly as doable to debate treatment.

Pain drugs, either over-the-counter or a prescription from your doctor, might facilitate relieve the pain caused by shingles. Wet compresses, lotion, and mixture oatmeal bathtubs (a lukewarm bath mixed with ground-up oatmeal) might facilitate relieve itch.

3 CONTACT DERMATITIS

Contact dermatitis may be a red, fretful rash caused by direct contact with a substance or Associate in Nursing aversion thereto. The rash is not contagious or criticalhowever, it is often terribly uncomfortable.

Many substances will cause such reactions, as well as soaps, cosmetics, fragrances, jewelry, and plants.

SYMPTOMS:

Signs and symptoms of dermatitis include:

A red rash
Itching, which can be severe
Dry, cracked, scaly skin
Bumps and blisters, generally with oozing and crusting
Swelling, burning or tenderness

CAUSES:-

Common irritants include:

-Solvents.
-Rubbing alcohol.
-Bleach and detergents.
-Shampoos, permanent solutions.
-Airborne substances, like wood or wool mud.
-Plants.
-Fertilizers and pesticides.

Common allergens include

Nickel, that is employed in jewelry, buckles and lots of alternative things
Medications, like antibiotic creams and oral antihistamines
Balsam of Republic of Peruthat is employed in several productslike perfumes, cosmetics, mouth rinses, and flavorings
Formaldehyde, that is in preservatives, disinfectants and covering
Personal care productlike deodorants, body washes, hair dyes, cosmetics and nail enamel
Plants like poison vine and mango, that contain an extremely matter substance known as urushiol
Airborne substances, like allergen and spray pesticides
Products that cause a reaction once you are within the sun (photoallergic contact dermatitis), like some sunscreens and oral medications

TREATMENT:

There area unit 2 components to addressing contact dermatitis: 1st, treat the irritated skin. Next, verify what caused the reaction therefore you’ll avoid that substance or botheration within the future.

Your MD will impose creams — or, in some cases, oral medication — to alleviate the itch and facilitate the broken skin to heal. Antihistamines and ointments may also facilitate. Avoid scratching the affected space to forestall infection.

To help your MD determine potential causes of your dermatitis, record your activities and therefore the things you’re thinking that diode to a reaction — or, if you’re unsure, merely list something that will have touched your skin within the 2 days before your symptoms started.

Your MD may use a skin test to work out potential causes, like rubber, fragrances or hair coloring. Patients’ area unit usually asked to wear the patch for forty-eight hours, keeping it dry for that amount. Your MD can then raise you to come double — someday once the patches area unit removed and once more per week later — to ascertain on your reaction.

4 Diaper Rash

Diaper rash typically comes on quickly, and it affects the area unit as of the baby’s body that is in nighest contact with the diaper.

Take a glance underneath your baby’s diaper. If dermatitis is inflicting the matteryou may see some or all of the subsequent symptoms:

Pinkness or Redness:-
Pinkness or redness over a little or massive spacewhere the diaper touches

waterlessness or Peeling Skin:-
Flaking, waterlessness or peeling/scaling of the skin

Chafing :
Chafing from the friction of the diaper rubbing against baby’s skin

Sensitivity :
The sensitivity of affected areas, the skin is a lot of sense and should take the bit

Papules and Pustules:-
Dry raised bumps (papules) or fluid-filled raised bumps (pustules)
Edema, or Swelling

Diaper rash causes:-

The primary explanation for dermatitis is prolonged and multiplied exposure to wetness/moisture against the skin. different factors contributive to severe dermatitis are:

Diaper Rash Cause: Closed setting
The closed setting created by diaper prevents air from reaching the baby’s bottom and will increase heat and wet

Diaper Rash Cause: Friction
Friction from rubbing against diaper or in skin folds makes it easier for irritating substances to penetrate the skin

Diaper Rash Cause: water
As water breaks down, the pH scale of the skin rises inflicting enzymes from the fecal matter to become a lot of active more irritating baby’s skin

Diaper Rash Cause: microorganism
Infant skin hasn’t nevertheless developed the defenses to forestall microorganism from getting into the compromised tissue

Diaper rash analysis guide
Identify the various levels of dermatitis symptoms and judge a way to best treat your baby.

TREATMENT:

The best treatment for dermatitis is to stay your baby’s skin as clean and dry as potential. If your baby’s dermatitis persists despite home treatment, your doctor might prescribe:

-A gentle adrenal cortical steroid (steroid) cream
-An antifungal cream, if your baby includes a zymosis
-Topical or oral antibiotics, if your baby includes a microorganism infection

Rosacea could be a common skin condition that causes redness and visual blood vessels in your face. it should conjointly manufacture little, red, pus-filled bumps. These signs and symptoms might flare up for weeks to months and so depart for a minuteacne rosacea is mistaken for a skin conditiondifferent skin issues or natural complexion

CAUSES:-

The primary cause of diaper rash is prolonged and increased exposure to wetness/moisture against the skin. Other factors contributing to severe diaper rash are:

Diaper Rash Cause: Closed Environment
The closed environment created by diaper prevents air from reaching the baby’s bottom and increases warmth and moisture

Diaper Rash Cause: Friction
Friction from rubbing against diaper or in skin folds makes it easier for irritating substances to penetrate the skin

Diaper Rash Cause: Urine
As urine breaks down, the pH of the skin rises causing enzymes from the feces to become more active further irritating baby’s skin

Diaper Rash Cause: Bacteria
Infant skin hasn’t yet developed the defenses to prevent bacteria from entering the compromised tissue

5 ROSACEA:

Rosacea could be a common skin condition that causes redness and visual blood vessels in your face. it should conjointly manufacture little, red, pus-filled bumps. These signs and symptoms might flare up for weeks to months and so depart for a minuteacne rosacea is mistaken for skin conditiondifferent skin issues or natural complexion

SYMPTOMS

Signs and symptoms of acne rosacea include:

Facial redness:-
acne rosacea usually causes a persistent redness within the central part of your face. little blood vessels on your nose and cheeks typically swell and appear.
Swollen, red bumps:-
many folks with acne rosacea conjointly develop pimples on their face that check skin condition. These bumps generally contain pus. Your skin might feel hot and tender.
Eye problems:-
many folks with acne rosacea conjointly expertise dry, irritated, swollen eyes and red, swollen eyelids. this is often referred to as ocular acne rosacea. In some folksthe attention symptoms precede the skin symptoms.
Enlarged nose:-
Over time, acne rosacea will thicken the skin on the nose, inflicting the nose to look bulbous (rhinophyma). this happens a lot of types in men than in girls.

CAUSES:

A number of things will trigger flare-ups, including:

-Hot drinks and spicy foods
-Red wine and different alcoholic beverages
-Temperature extremes
-Sunlight or wind
-Emotions
-Exercise
-Drugs that dilate blood vessels, together with some pressure medications
-Various cosmetic merchandise

Treatment:-

Topical treatments embrace Flagyl, azelaic acid, ivermectin and bactericide. Ivermectin (1% cream) is beneficial for gentle to moderate acne rosaceait’s AN medicament impact furthermore as having a bearing on Demodex mites, which can activate the native

6 Sunburn:

SYMPTOMS:-
The first signs of sunburn might not seem for a couple of hours. the total result to your skin might not seem for twenty-four hours or longer. doable symptoms include:

Red, tender skin that takes the bit
Blisters that develop hours to days later
Severe reactions (sometimes referred to as sun poisoning), together with fever, chills, nausea, or rash
Skin peeling on sunburnt areas many days when the sunburn
Symptoms of sunburn are usually temporary. however the injury to skin cells is commonly permanent, which may have serious long effects. These embody carcinoma and early aging of the skin. By the time the skin starts to become painful and red, the injury has been done. Pain is worst between vi to forty-eight hours when sun exposure.

TREATMENT:-

In most cases, treatment involves making the sunburned person more comfortable. The individual should get out of the sun and protect tender skin against more sun exposure for at least one week. Pain can be treated with acetaminophen (Tylenol) or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen. Individuals with moderate sunburn over a large area should drink extra water to avoid dehydration. In addition, discomfort may be reduced by using the following:

-calamine lotion
-sunburn cream or spray
-cool tap water compress
-colloidal oatmeal baths
-moisturizer creams to reduce skin peeling

7 Hives(Urticaria):

 

Closeup of hives.
People who have chronic idiopathic urticaria will spontaneously develop hives without a clear explanation or link as to the cause of those hives.
Generalized urticaria.
Unlike people with urticaria due to a distinct allergic or infectious cause, people with chronic idiopathic urticaria may have hives all over their bodies with no clear pattern as to cause or distribution.
Closeup of hives.
People who have chronic idiopathic urticaria will spontaneously develop hives without a clear explanation or link as to the cause of those hives.

Hives (urticaria) are red, fretful welts that result from a skin reaction. The welts vary in size and seem and fade repeatedly because the reaction runs its course.

The condition is taken into account chronic hives if the welts seem for over six weeks and recur oftentimes over months or years. Often, the reason behind chronic hives isn’t clear.

SYMPTOMS:-

 

The burden of Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria (CIU) (CNW Group/Novartis Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc.)

Signs and symptoms of chronic hives include:

-Welts that fluctuate in size, change and seem and fade repeatedly because the reaction runs its course.
-Itching, which can be severe.
-Painful swelling (angioedema) of the lips, eyelids and within the throat
-Batches of red or skin-colored welts (wheals), which may seem anyplace on the body.
-A tendency for signs and symptoms to flare with triggers like heat, exercise, and stress
A tendency for signs and symptoms to persist for over six weeks and to recur oftentimes and erraticallytypically for months or years

CAUSES:

Here are a couple of the foremost common causes:

Some food(especially peanuts, eggs, bats and shellfish).
Medications, like antibiotics (especially antibiotic drug and sulfa), a painkiller and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory
Insect stings or bites.
Physical stimuli like pressure, cold, heat, exercise or sun exposure.
Latex.
Bacterial infections, together with tract infections and infection.
Viral infections, together with respiratory illnessglandular fever and infectious disease.
Pet dander.
Pollen.
Some plants.

TREATMENT:-

Taking nondrowsy medication pills daily helps block the symptom-producing unharness of aminoalkanethey need few aspect effects. Examples include:

Loratadine (Claritin)
Fexofenadine (Allegra)
Cetirizine (Zyrtec)
Desloratadine (Clarinex)

OTHER MEDITATION:-
If antihistamines alone do not relieve your symptoms, different medicine might facilitate. For example:

Histamine (H-2) blockers. These medications additionally referred to as H-2 receptor antagonists, are injected or taken orally. Examples embody alkalizer (Tagamet HB), gastric antacid and histamine blocker (Pepcid).

Anti-inflammation medications:- Oral corticosteroids, like anti-inflammatory drugswill facilitate reduce swelling, redness, and itch. These are typically for short management of severe hives or angioedema as a result of they will cause serious aspect effects if taken for a protracted time.
Antidepressants. The tricyclic antidepressant drug (Zonalon), utilized in cream kindwill facilitate relieve itch. This drug might cause giddiness and temporary state.

Asthma medicine with antihistamines:- Medications that interfere with the action of leukotriene modifiers could also be useful once used with antihistamines. Examples are montelukast (Singulair) and zafirlukast (Accolate).

Man-made (monoclonal) antibodies:- The drug omalizumab (Xolair) is incredibly effective against a sort of difficult-to-treat chronic hives. It’s associate degree injectable drugs that is typically given once a month

8 Atopic dermatitis(Eczema):-

Atopic dermatitis typically develops in time of life and is additional common in those that have a case history of the condition.

Symptom:-

Atopic dermatitis (eczema) signs and symptoms vary widely from person to person and include:

–Dry skin
–Itching, which can be severe, particularly in the dark
–Red to brownish-gray patches, particularly on the hands, feet, ankles, wrists, neck, higher chest, eyelids, within the bend of the elbows and knees, and in infants, the face and scalp
–small, raised bumps, which can leak fluid and crust over once scraped
–thickened, cracked, scaly skin
–raw, sensitive, swollen skin from scratching

Causes:

The specific explanation for skin disease remains unknown, however, it’s believed to develop thanks to a mixture of genetic and environmental factors.

Eczema isn’t contagious.

Children are additional doubtless to develop malady|disease of the skin|skin disorder|skin problem|skin condition} if a parent has had the condition or another atopic disease.

If each oldster has an associate atopic illnessthe danger is even larger.

Environmental factors are glorious to bring out the symptoms of skin disease,

–Irritants:
These embrace soaps, detergents, shampoos, disinfectants, juices from contemporary fruits, meats, or vegetables.
Allergens: mud mites, pets, pollens, mold, and dandruff will cause skin disease.
Microbes: These embrace microorganisms like staphylococci aureus, viruses, and sure fungi.
–Hot and cold temperatures:
very popular or atmospheric conditions, high and low wetness, and perspiration from exercise will bring out skin disease.
–Foods:
dairy farm products, eggs, barmy and seeds, soy products, and wheat will cause skin disease flare-ups.
–Stress:
{this is|this is often|this will be} not a right away explanation for skin disease however can build symptoms worse.
Hormones: girls will expertise raised skin disease symptoms sometimes once their secretion levels are ever-changingas an example throughout gestation and at sure points within the cycle.

Treatment:

Common skin disease treatments
OTC product
Over-the-counter (OTC) treatment products or medications you’ll get while not a prescription. Some unlisted skin disease treatments are used for moisturizing skin; some are accustomed to facilitate skin symptoms like rash, redness, and itch; and a few ar for gently improvement skin to forestall infection.

BATHING
The most effective thanks to treating dry skin are to relinquish it the wetness it wants through correct bathing and moisturizing. Soak in a very heat tub or take a shower so wash in real-time later (within 3 minutes). you’ll facilitate calm specific symptoms of skin disease by adding bleach, vinegar, salt, oatmeal or bicarbonate to your H2O.

MOISTURIZING
When your skin gets too dry, it will become irritated and cause your skin disease to flare. Wind, low wetness, cold temperatures, harsh soaps and an excessive amount of laundry while not the utilization of a moisturizer in real-time once, all will cause dry skin.

Many people with skin disease have drier-than-normal skin thanks to an associate imbalance within the top protecting layer of skin referred to as the skin barrier. once functioning ordinarily, our skin barrier helps keep irritants and allergens out and wetness in. That’s why bathing and properly moisturizing to take care of a healthy skin barrier are key to assist management in your skin disease symptoms. It’s vital to know however and once to properly wash, and that product ar best to use after you have a skin disease.

PRESCRIPTION TOPICALS
Prescription topical medications embrace corticosteroids (steroids), PDE4 inhibitors, topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs) and skin barrier creams. offered through your doctor, these medications are applied to the affected space of the skin to assist ease redness, rash, xerotes, and haptic sensation.

PHOTOTHERAPY
In actinotherapy, a special machine is employed to emit narrowband ultraviolet B (UVB) lightweight onto the skin so as to assist cut back haptic sensation and inflammation, increase cholecalciferol production and bacteria-fighting systems within the skin.

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